Beth Elohim Messianic Synagogue
Parashah #22-3: Vayak’hel (He assembled) and P’kudei (Accounts)
Sh’mot (Exodus) 35:1-38:20 and 38:21-40:38
Haftarah Vayak’hel: M’lakhim Alef (1 Kings) 7:13-26
P’kudei: M’lakhim Alef (1 Kings) 7:40-50
B’rit Chadashah: Vayak’hel: Revelation 11:1-13
P’kudei: Revelation 15:5-8
Due to time restrictions for the teachings, it is recommended that the reader review the haftarah and B’rit Chadashah readings for parashah #23independently and submit any questions concerning these scriptures to the website at rabdavis.org under ‘ask the rabbi” link.
These parashot are read together in regular years of which this year qualifies, so teachings from these parashot will be discussed in tandem. The subject of today’s lesson is the typology of the tabernacle which appropriately applies to both parashot.
There is no doubt that when discussing “types” in scripture, the tabernacle is the object of the majority of writings. There are more than 45 chapters devoted to the tabernacle and the numerous activities that were performed there. Although there are many interpretations, the serious student of the scriptures must take great care to use the method of exegesis versus eisegesis when formulating opinions or conclusions, lest humanity seeps in to distort the true meaning of scripture.
Every type in scripture is confirmed as a type. Examples include the use of blue to typify heaven; purple, royalty; silver, redemption; and brass, judgment
The only way to correctly understand types, we must acquire knowledge of the Old Testament and the B’rit Chadashah (refreshed, renewed Covenant) because the fundamental element of all types is found in both testaments that establish and confirm the inextricable relationship between types.
Each step of the construction of the tabernacle was given by G-d to Moshe in great detail from the materials, how the resources were to be obtained and the amounts, the specific objects, the partitions, and how services and sacrifices were to be performed. This detail was necessary to reflect the perfection of G-d and the tabernacle in heaven. Let’s take a closer look at the definitions of type and antitype to explain the connection between them.
A type is a preordained person, event, or object found in the Old Testament that prefigures or symbolizes a corresponding person, event, or object found in the B’rit Chadashah. One can easily see then that it is imperative to thoroughly study the entire Torah/instructions of G-d to understand the past, present, and future of .
have common characteristics that establish them as an identifiable class. According to DeWitt,1993, p. 101)These are
1. Tupos: translated as figure (Rom. 5:14), pattern (Heb. 8:5), an example (1 Cor. 10:6).
2. Anti- tupon: translated as like figure (1 Pet. 3:21) and as figure ( Heb. 9:24).
3. Hupodeigma: translated as pattern (Heb. 9:230 and example (Heb. 4:11).
4. Parabole: translated as figure (Heb. 9:9; 11:19)
5. Skia: translated as shadow (Col. 2:17; Heb 8:5; 10:1).
Two main points that are required for something or someone to be considered a type which may be described as a shadow and the source of the shadow. Because we can only identify with types on earth that are tactile or visual, we cannot fully comprehend antitypes (originals). In G-d’s benevolent mercy and kindness, He provided us with earthly examples of things to come both on earth and in heaven. Because we have neither seen nor heard the things that await those who will be deemed good and faithful servants at the judgment ( Matt. 13:17), the need to understand the types provided by G-d all the more. There is a saying that “the ‘New’ Testament is on the Old concealed and the old is in the new revealed” is best explained through the types found in scripture and especially in those represented by the tabernacle.
One more comment on type and antitype is needed before discussing the types represented by the tabernacle. The shadow and the object are called the type and the antitype. The type is always found in the Old Testament and is the precursor of the antitype (object) that is the fulfillment of what the type represented.
Now we shall look at a few type-antitype relationships related to the tabernacle and the things and people associated with it.
Type: High Priest: Exodus 28:1
Antitype: Yahshua: Heb. 4:14-15; 5:1-5; 7:24-8; 8:1-6; 9:11; 9:24-5
Type: Furniture of the tabernacle: Exodus 25:10-40:27:1-8;30:1-10; 17-21
Antitype: The furnishings represent various aspects of Yahshua and His ministries such as the Menorah, specifically the 4th candle as the servant candle from which the others were lit. He is the Light of the world, and the other lamps represent true believers who are to obtain light from Yahshua; our High Priest, and continually let it shine before the nations to glorify YHVH/Yahshua. The K’ruvim above the Ark may represent grace and law, an inextricable relationship illustrated in the 10 Sefirot used to describe the various attributes of G-d and His Torah.
Type: The Holy place and the Holy of Holies
Antitype: Heaven: Heb. 9:23-4
The word “place” refers to the two compartments: the holy place and the holy of holies. These are representations of heaven. Only the High Priest could enter the holy of holies and intercede for the people. Yahshua is our High Priest that intercedes for mankind in heaven.
Type: The Ark and mercy seat
Antitype: G-d: Heb. 9:24
Type: Animal sacrifices: Lev. 1-7
Antitype: Yahshua’s life and sacrifice( Olah) offering; total consecration)
John 1:29; 1 Cor. 5:7; Eph. 5:2;Heb. 9:28; Heb. 10:1-2; 1 Pet. 1:18-19; Rev. 5:9; Rev. 13;8.
Type: Physical perfection of priests and animals: Lev. 21;16-23 (priests); 22:17-25; Deut. 15:21; 17:1 (animals)
Antitype: Yahshua without sin or blemish: Heb. 9:14; 1 Pet. 1:19
The priests and animals were to be without blemish but were an incomplete sacrifice required for the atonement of mankind because man by nature is not sinless and animals are not capable of sin. Because of the purer nature of the animals, their sinlessness represented or symbolized the sinlessness of Yahshua. He went to the sacrificial stake as a lamb to slaughter and he did not open his mouth as He was led away (Is. 53:7-9).
Type: Blood: Gen 9:4; Lev. 17:11; 1:5; 3:2; 4:6-7; 7:2; 16:14
Antitype: Efficacy of Yahshua’s life and death: Matt. 26:28; Heb. 9:12; 9:22-3; 1 John 1:7
Type: Sin offering for the high priest and congregation: Lev. 4:3-12; 13-21;6;30
Antitype: Yahshua dies for our sins outside the gates of Jerusalem: Heb. 13:11-12. The sin offerings for Aharon and congregation were burnt outside the camp instead of at the brazen altar, which symbolized Yahshua who was taken outside the city gates to Golgotha to suffer and die.
Type: Yom Kippur: Lev. 16
Antitype: This is the time when YHVH/Yahshua decides the fate of each individual. The people pray and fast, asking G-d for sins committed against Him since Rosh Hashana is a time taken to ask other humans for forgiveness of any offences, we may have committed against them; Rosh Hashana taking place 10 days before Yom Kippur; the final judgement and atonement.
The high priest would go into the holy of holies once a year, on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), with the blood to make atonement for the peoples’ sins.
Type: Veil: Ex. 26:33; Lev. 16:12
Antitype: (Matt. 27:51)Access to G-d; a way to be reconciled to G-d through Yahshua’s blood. No longer was the high priest the only one who could atone for the sins of the people. With Yahshua’s sacrifice, all men can now enter into a saving relationship with YHVH/Yahshua through repentance, and loving obedience to His Torah.
There are more type-antitype relationships concerning the tabernacle and the priests garments. However, time limits prohibit a full study beyond what is presented in this teaching. I refer anyone interested in further explanation of the typology of the sacrifices and other related information to rabdavis.org with s specific search for the desired teaching.
Haftarah: M’lakhim Alef (1 Kings) 7:13-26
This passage reflects back to the talents, wisdom and knowledge G-d provided B’tzal’el and Oholi’av and G-d’s provision for those who love Him; just what they need when they need it to accomplish His purpose for their lives. In this case it is Hiram from the tribe of Naftali who was “a bronze worker filled with wisdom, understanding and skill for all kinds of bronze craftsmanship. He came to King Solomon and did all his bronzework.” The challenge for those who submit to decisions by the rabbis or other religious leaders is to compare what is given as halacha or law compared to G-d’s Torah. It is also wise to pray for wisdom and understanding on your own behalf. Clergy do not own the market on wisdom and knowledge, as the Torah makes very clear. More than this, we need to keep the warning found in revelation 22:18-19 very near as we listen to those who do not teach true to G-d’s Torah: “ I warn everyone hearing the words of this prophecy in this book that if anyone adds to them, G-d will add to him the plagues written in this book. And if anyone takes anything away from the words in the book of this prophecy, G-d will take away his share in the Tree of Life and the holy city, as described in this book.” We have been duly warned.
B’rit Chadashah: Revelation 11:1-13
The focus of this passage is the two witnesses of whose identity there exists much debate. It seems logical these two will represent grace and law as they are described as “the two olive trees and the two menorahs standing before the L-rd of the earth.” Are these two Elijah and Enoch? These are the two individuals identified in the Bible that did not die before being taken to heaven. Or could one of them be Moshe? We will not know for certain until the designated time. These two will be given what they need to accomplish G-d’s purpose for them as described for others who served G-d in the parashah and the haftarah. Of this provision we can be sure of in our lives if we are living to serving G-d. These two witnesses are given the power to destroy, hold back rain, turn the waters into blood, and to strike the earth with every kind of plague as often as they want! However, to whom much is given, much is required. After 1,260 days of calling people to repentance as evidenced by their sackcloth garments, the Antimessiah will kill them. Their bodies will lay in the streets of Jerusalem for 3 ½ days while those who reject their prophesy and G-d; laugh, rejoice, and exchange gifts as they celebrate their deaths. But there is more to come. After the 3 ½ days G-d calls them to heaven. Once this witness for G-d is gone, there is a great earthquake killing 7,000 and causing others to give glory to the G-d of heaven. This does not mean these people became believers. Many people give glory to G-d in a time of fear. Nevertheless, this is the end of the second woe and the worst is yet to come. May we pray for wisdom from above, knowledge, and strength as we approach the next test of our faith and trust, knowing the outcome for true believers.
Rabbi Tamah Davis-Hart
An additional reference used for this parashah is as follows:
DeWitt, R. J. (1993) Teaching from the Tabernacle: Baker Book House, Grand Rapids Michigan